Who authored the Quran – Part 5

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Ubayy b. Ka’b 

Ubay b. Ka’b was the personal secretary of Muhammad and one of the six collectors of the Qur’an. The other five collectors of the Qur’an, according to ibn Sa’d (ibn sa’d, vol.i, p.457), were:

Muadh ibn Jabal

Abu al-Darda

Zayd ibn Thabit

Sa’d ibn Ubayd

Abu Zayd

Ubayy b. Ka’b was also known as Abu Mundhir. He took the 2nd pledge of Aqaba along with other ansars from Medina and was one of the first persons in Medina to accept Islam. He was Muhammad’s greatest confidante’ and a saviour in troubled times. Whenever Muhammad would forget some verses of the Qur’an or he would want some explanation on some verses he would seek the help of Ubayy. This dependence of Muhammad on Ubayy reflects that he (Ubayy b. Ka’b) was the real writer of Muhammad’s dictations, and Ubayy wrote whatever he fancied—subject, of course to Muhammad’s approval. Residing in Medina, where a sizeable thriving Jewish community lived, he was profoundly knowledgeable in Jewish scriptures and Jewish laws. Most likely, he wrote many of the Medina Suras that deal with Islamic legal provisions. These Medina Suras are not as poetically enchanting as the Meccan Suras are. This is because Ubayy b. Ka’b was not really a poet but a politician and a scribe. In fact, he wrote his own version of the Qur’an which he refused to surrender when, during Uthman’s time, all versions of the Qur’an, except that of Hafsa’s were proscribed and burned. Ubayy b. Ka’b and ibn Masud refused to surrender their Mushaf (Qur’an written on leaves) and kept them in secret.

 

We can safely surmise that many Medina Suras were actually written by Ubyy b. Ka’b with the assistance of other scribes of Muhammad.

 

It is quite fascinating to note that although Gabriel purportedly brought the Qur’anic verses to Muhammad, he saw Gabriel in his true form only twice. This is confirmed from this Hadis in Sahih Bukhari:

 

Volume 6, Book 60, Number 378:

Narrated Masruq:

I said to ‘Aisha, “O Mother! Did Prophet Muhammad see his Lord?” Aisha said, “What you have said makes my hair stand on end ! Know that if somebody tells you one of the following three things, he is a liar: Whoever tells you that Muhammad saw his Lord, is a liar.” Then Aisha recited the Verse:

‘No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision. He is the Most Courteous Well-Acquainted with all things.’ (6.103) ‘It is not fitting for a human being that Allah should speak to him except by inspiration or from behind a veil.’ (42.51) ‘Aisha further said, “And whoever tells you that the Prophet knows what is going to happen tomorrow, is a liar.” She then recited:

‘No soul can know what it will earn tomorrow.’ (31.34) She added: “And whoever tell you that he concealed (some of Allah’s orders), is a liar.” Then she recited: ‘O Apostle! Proclaim (the Message) which has been sent down to you from your Lord..’ (5.67) ‘Aisha added. “But the Prophet saw Gabriel in his true form twice.”

Of course, this Hadis is confusing and contradictory when we recall that in otherahadith Muhammad claimed that Gabriel visited him many times in the form other human beings (most notably, in the guise of Dhiya al-Kalbi, a handsome merchant of Medina). So what prevents him from saying that all those Qur’an scribes, including Ubayy b Ka’b, were in fact, Gabriel/s in various forms?

 

 

Aisha

 

Bibi Aisha was Muhammad’s most favourite wife. He married her when she was just a child of six years and had sex with her when she was merely nine years old. The youth, the vivacity, the tenderness, the child-like innocence and the childhood exuberance—these were the ingredients that consumed Muhammad’s mind in the adoration of Aisha’s gullibility. As a child-bride Aisha was completely dependent on Muhammad’s maturity. Like any other child of her age she believed in whatever Muhammad told her about his divine inspiration. Muhammad claimed that he used to get revelations from Allah only when he slept with Aisha. Why Gabriel did not bother to visit him when he spent nights with other wives in his harem? This is a question very few Islamic scholars/historians have answered. The truth is: except for Aisha, all other wives of Muhammad were grown up, matured and had experience with the trials, tribulations and crookedness of life in general. Some of them already had grown-up children. It was not so simple for Muhammad to convince this retinue of women about his communication with Allah via Gabriel. They would not simply believe so easily in Muhammad’s made-up stories. Although they were forced to live in his harem, nonetheless, they could not, deep in their mind, endorse all the claims of Muhammad. So, evidently Aisha, with her child-like simplicity and innocence became Muhammad’s source of divine inspiration! Muhammad was simply playing with a child’s mind which tends to believe all sorts of Ghost and Jinn stories, Santa Klaus, winged horses, devils, monsters and all mythological and fictional characters. The following ahadith from Sahih Bukhari confirms that Allah communicated with Muhammad only when he slept with Aisha:

 

Muhammad used to get divine inspiration only in Aisha’s bed…3.47.755

Volume 3, Book 47, Number 755:

Narrated ‘Urwa from ‘Aisha:

The wives of Allah’s Apostle were in two groups. One group consisted of ‘Aisha, Hafsa, Safiyya and Sauda; and the other group consisted of Um Salama and the other wives of Allah’s Apostle. The Muslims knew that Allah’s Apostle loved ‘Aisha, so if any of them had a gift and wished to give to Allah’s Apostle, he would delay it, till Allah’s Apostle had come to ‘Aisha’s home and then he would send his gift to Allah’s Apostle in her home. The group of Um Salama discussed the matter together and decided that Um Salama should request Allah’s Apostle to tell the people to send their gifts to him in whatever wife’s house he was. Um Salama told Allah’s Apostle of what they had said, but he did not reply. Then they (those wives) asked Um Salama about it. She said, “He did not say anything to me.” They asked her to talk to him again. She talked to him again when she met him on her day, but he gave no reply. When they asked her, she replied that he had given no reply. They said to her, “Talk to him till he gives you a reply.” When it was her turn, she talked to him again. He then said to her, “Do not hurt me regarding Aisha, as the Divine Inspirations do not come to me on any of the beds except that of Aisha.” On that Um Salama said, “I repent to Allah for hurting you.” Then the group of Um Salama called Fatima, the daughter of Allah’s Apostle and sent her to Allah’s Apostle to say to him, “Your wives request to treat them and the daughter of Abu Bakr on equal terms.” Then Fatima conveyed the message to him. The Prophet said, “O my daughter! Don’t you love whom I love?” She replied in the affirmative and returned and told them of the situation. They requested her to go to him again but she refused. They then sent Zainab bint Jahsh who went to him and used harsh words saying, “Your wives request you to treat them and the daughter of Ibn Abu Quhafa on equal terms.” On that she raised her voice and abused ‘Aisha to her face so much so that Allah’s Apostle looked at ‘Aisha to see whether she would retort. ‘Aisha started replying to Zainab till she silenced her. The Prophet then looked at ‘Aisha and said, “She is really the daughter of Abu Bakr.”

Divine inspiration came to Muhammad only when he slept with Aisha…5.57.119

 

Volume 5, Book 57, Number 119:

Narrated Hisham’s father:

The people used to send presents to the Prophet on the day of ‘Aisha’s turn. ‘Aisha said, “My companions (i.e. the other wives of the Prophet) gathered in the house of Um Salama and said, “0 Um Salama! By Allah, the people choose to send presents on the day of ‘Aisha’s turn and we too, love the good (i.e. presents etc.) as ‘Aisha does. You should tell Allah’s Apostle to tell the people to send their presents to him wherever he may be, or wherever his turn may be.” Um Salama said that to the Prophet and he turned away from her, and when the Prophet returned to her (i.e. Um Salama), she repeated the same, and the Prophet again turned away, and when she told him the same for the third time, the Prophet said, “O Um Salama! Don’t trouble me by harming ‘Aisha, for by Allah, the Divine Inspiration never came to me while I was under the blanket of any woman amongst you except her.”

Aisha did not see Gabriel while Muhammad introduced Gabriel to her…4.54.440

 

Volume 4, Book 54, Number 440:

Narrated Abu Salama:

‘Aisha said that the Prophet said to her “O ‘Aisha’ This is Gabriel and he sends his (greetings) salutations to you.” ‘Aisha said, “Salutations (Greetings) to him, and Allah’s Mercy and Blessings be on him,” and addressing the Prophet she said, “You see what I don’t see.”

Muhammad told Aisha that Gabriel greeted her…8.74.270

 

Volume 8, Book 74, Number 270:

Narrated ‘Aisha: that the Prophet said to her, “Gabriel sends Salam (greetings) to you.” She replied, “Wa ‘alaihi-s-Salam Wa Rahmatu-l-lah.” (Peace and Allah’s Mercy be on him).

The ahdith quoted above clearly tells us how cleverly Muhammad used the innocence and immature mind of a child to claim his divine inspiration. In fact, Muhammad, himself, composed certain parts of the Qur’an while he slept with Aisha. Sahih Bukhari confirms this:

 

Muhammad used to recite the Qur’an leaning on a menstruating Aisha…1.6.296

 

Volume 1, Book 6, Number 296:

Narrated ‘Aisha:

The Prophet used to lean on my lap and recite Qur’an while I was in menses.

Even Muhammad’s Quran’n writer, Zayd b. Thabit admits that some Qur’anic verses were manipulated. Here is a Hadis from Shahih Bukhari on this:

 

Some Qur’anic verses were manipulated (verse 33:23)…5.59.379

Volume 5, Book 59, Number 379:

Narrated Zaid bin Thabit:

When we wrote the Holy Quran, I missed one of the Verses of Surat-al-Ahzab which I used to hear Allah’s Apostle reciting. Then we searched for it and found it with Khuzaima bin Thabit Al-Ansari. The Verse was:–

‘Among the Believers are men Who have been true to Their Covenant with Allah, Of them, some have fulfilled Their obligations to Allah (i.e. they have been Killed in Allah’s Cause), And some of them are (still) waiting” (33.23) So we wrote this in its place in the Quran.

 

The above quoted Hadis tells us that some verses of the Qur’an were written by people other than Muhammad’s official Qur’an scribes. Please note that Khuzaima b. Thabit al-Ansari, mentioned in this Hadis was not one of the official Qur’an writers of Muhammad.

 

In Sahih Muslim we read the following Hadis:

 

Muhammad used to recite Qur’an while reclining on the lap of a menstruating Aisha…3. 0591

 

Book 003, Number 0591:

‘A’isha reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) would recline in my lap when I was menstruating, and recite the Qur’an.

If those references are not convincing enough to demonstrate that Aisha played a vital role in the authorship of the Qur’an, then this Hadis from Sahih Muslimtells us that, Aisha, indeed modified the Qur’anic verses. This Hadis informs us that after Muhammad’s death a Qur’an was compiled exclusively for Aisha. Then Aisha dictated to her scribe a verse of the Qur’an, claiming that that was how Muhammad used to recite the verse (2:238).

 

Here is the Hadis from Sahih Muslim:

Book 004, Number 1316:

Abu Yunus, the freed slave of ‘A’isha said: ‘A’isha ordered me to transcribe a copy of the Qur’an for her and said: When you reach this verse:” Guard the prayers and the middle prayer” (ii. 238), inform me; so when I reached it, I informed her and she gave me dictation (like this): Guard the prayers and the middle prayer and the afternoon prayer, and stand up truly obedient to Allah. ‘A’isha said: This is how I have heard from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him).

From Sahih Bukhari we also learn that the two key Suras, Sura al-Bakara (Sura 2) and Sura anNisa (Sura 4) were composed in the presence of Aisha. She also reveals that the first verse was really about Paradise and Hell–contrary to the claims of many Islamic historians that it was the first few verses of Sura al-Alaq (Sura 96). This Hadis also informs us that there were a few versions of the Qur’an, and Aisha had a version with her which was different from other versions. Could it be that Aisha, herself added or deleted verses from her version of the Qur’an? Here is the Hadis:

How cleverly revelations were changed to suit the purposes…6.61.515

 

Volume 6, Book 61, Number 515:

Narrated Yusuf bin Mahk:

While I was with Aisha, the mother of the Believers, a person from Iraq came and asked, “What type of shroud is the best?” ‘Aisha said, “May Allah be merciful to you! What does it matter?” He said, “O mother of the Believers! Show me (the copy of) your Qur’an,” She said, “Why?” He said, “In order to compile and arrange the Qur’an according to it, for people recite it with its Suras not in proper order.” ‘Aisha said, “What does it matter which part of it you read first? (Be informed) that the first thing that was revealed thereof was a Sura from Al-Mufassal, and in it was mentioned Paradise and the Fire. When the people embraced Islam, the Verses regarding legal and illegal things were revealed. If the first thing to be revealed was: ‘Do not drink alcoholic drinks.’ people would have said, ‘We will never leave alcoholic drinks,’ and if there had been revealed, ‘Do not commit illegal sexual intercourse, ‘they would have said, ‘We will never give up illegal sexual intercourse.’ While I was a young girl of playing age, the following Verse was revealed in Mecca to Muhammad: ‘Nay! But the Hour is their appointed time (for their full recompense), and the Hour will be more grievous and more bitter.’ (54.46) Sura Al-Baqara (The Cow) and Surat An-Nisa (The Women) were revealed while I was with him.” Then ‘Aisha took out the copy of the Qur’an for the man and dictated to him the Verses of the Suras (in their proper order).

 

Muhammad b. Abdullah (pbuh)

 

There is very little doubt that Muhammad, himself, had composed certain Qur’anic verses. Nonetheless, due to his shortcoming of being an illiterate person (as claimed in the Qur’an), he had to engage several scribes to write down what he invented in his own mind. If one reads the Qur’an carefully one will not fail to discover many such verses which unmistakably show that it is Muhammad who is talking in these verse and not Allah–via His postman Gabriel. Here I have listed a few such verses:

 

006.104  “Now have come to you, from your Lord, proofs (to open your eyes): if any will see, it will be for (the good of) his own soul; if any will be blind, it will be to his own (harm): I am not (here) to watch over your doings.”

 

The words ‘I am not a keeper over you’ is clearly words of Muhammad.

 

006.114 Say: “Shall I seek for judge other than Allah? – when He it is Who hath sent unto you the Book, explained in detail.” They know full well, to whom We have given the Book, that it hath been sent down from thy Lord in truth. Never be then of those who doubt.

 

The words, ‘Shall I seek for judge other than Allah?’ are undoubtedly Muhammad’s words.

 

Please note that the translator Yusuf Ali deliberately inserted the word “Say” at the outset of this verse. In the original Qur’an there is no “Say” (Kul in Arabic). Here are the translations by Pickthal and Shakir, another two authoritative Qur’an translators.

PICKTHAL: Shall I seek other than Allah for judge, when He it is Who hath revealed unto you (this) Scripture, fully explained? Those unto whom We gave the Scripture (aforetime) know that it is revealed from thy Lord in truth. So be not thou (O Muhammad) of the waverers.
SHAKIR: Shall I then seek a judge other than Allah? And He it is Who has revealed to you the Book (which is) made plain; and those whom We have given the Book know that it is revealed by your Lord with truth, therefore you should not be of the disputers.

And here is the transliteration:

114. Afaghayra Allahi abtaghee hakaman wahuwa allathee anzala ilaykumu alkitaba mufassalan waallatheena ataynahumu alkitaba yaAAlamoona annahu munazzalun min rabbika bialhaqqi fala takoonanna mina almumtareena

 

019.009  He said: “So (it will be) thy Lord saith, ‘that is easy for Me: I did indeed create thee before, when thou hadst been nothing!'”

 

Here an angel (or Muhammad?) is talking not Allah.

 

019.064 (The angels say:) “We descend not but by command of thy Lord: to Him belongeth what is before us and what is behind us, and what is between: and thy Lord never doth forget,-

Here Gabriel (or Muhammad?) is talking and not Allah.

 

037.164 (Those ranged in ranks say): “Not one of us but has a place appointed;
 037.165 “And we are verily ranged in ranks (for service);
 037.166 “And we are verily those who declare (Allah’s) glory!”
Here the angel (or Muhammad?) is talking and not Allah.

 

051.050 Hasten ye then (at once) to Allah: I am from Him a Warner to you, clear and open!

Here an angel (or Muhammad?) is talking and not Allah.

 

053.002 Your Companion is neither astray nor being misled.

 

Muhammad is not being misled: Isn’t Muhammad talking here?

 

070.040 Now I do call to witness the Lord of all points in the East and the West that We can certainly-
 070.041Substitute for them better (men) than they; And We are not to be defeated (in Our Plan).

Isn’t Muhammad talking here?

086.017 Therefore grant a delay to the Unbelievers: Give respite to them gently (for awhile).

 

Isn’t Muhammad talking here?

 

The most important of verses in the Qur’an, that is, Sura al-Fateha (Sura 1) is definitely Muhammad’s (or some other poet’s) creation. Please read this Sura carefully:

001.001 In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
001.002 Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds;
 001.003 Most Gracious, Most Merciful;
 001.004 Master of the Day of Judgment.
 001.005 Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek.
 001.006 Show us the straight way,
 001.007 The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace, those whose (portion) is not wrath, and who go not astray.
Readers should carefully note that there is no mention of “Say” (Kul in Arabic) at the beginning of this verse. So, who is praying to Allah in this Sura? Is Allah asking himself (Allah) to pray to Himself? What a ridiculous situation, come to think of it! This conundrum is immediately resolved when we realise that it was none but Muhammad who is asking his followers to pray to Allah. Chronologically, this Sura is one of the first 5 Suras (it is the 5th, or 6th. according to some) of the Qur’an. This was a time when Muhammad was just starting out preaching his own brand of ‘Hanifism’ (Islam) and he composed this verse (some say by imitating some Jewish liturgy) for his handful of followers.

If further strong evidence is needed to prove that Muhammad had, indeed, composed certain verses of the Qur’an then this Ummul Qur’an (Sura Fateha), the seven most oft repeated verses stand out as the glaring example of that confirmation.

And how did Muhammad behave when people wanted to see how Allah’s revelations came to him? Here is a Hadis from Sahih Muslim that tells us clearly that Umar used to shelter (read hide) Muhammad under a piece of cloth-cover and Muhammad used to sleep, snorting like a camel (and pretending that Allah was talking to him). Some people were curious and peeped through the covering and this was what they saw:

During revelation Umar used to cover Muhammad with a piece of cloth and Muhammad snorted like a camel …7.2654 (Sahih Muslim)

 

Book 007, Number 2654:

Ya’la b. Umayya reported on the authority of his father (Allah be pleased with them) that a person came to the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) as he was at Ji’rana and he (the person) had been putting on a cloak which was perfumed, or he (the narrator) said: There was a trace of yellowness on it. He said (to the Holy Prophet): What do you command me to do during my Umra? (It was at this juncture) that the revelation came to the Apostle of Allah (way peace be upon him) and he was covered with a cloth, and Ya’la said: Would that I see revelation coming to the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him). He (Hadrat ‘Umar) said: Would it please you to see the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) receiving the revelations ‘Umar lifted a corner of the cloth and I looked at him and he was emitting a sound of snorting. He (the narrator) said: I thought it was the sound of a camel. When he was relieved of this he said: Where is he who asked about Umra? When the person came, the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: Wash out the trace of yellowness, or he said: the trace of perfume and put off the cloak and do in your ‘Umra what you do in your Hajj.

That was how Allah talked to Muhammad–through the ‘bleating’ of a camel!

A blind man corrects the Qur’an and Allah!

 

Lastly, as a final proof that Muhammad corrected/inserted/deleted the contents of a verse as situation demanded and/or as people requested, here is the example of Ibn Umm Maktum, a blind man of Mecca. He requested Muhammad to correct a verse to exempt a blind person to join in a Jihad. This blind man used to listen to Muhammad’s preaching and wanted to discuss with him certain aspects of Islam. However, Muhammad, at first, ignored him, but later he became very remorseful for neglecting this blind man. So Allah, in Sura al-Abasa (He frowned) (Sura 80, chronological order 24) reproached Muhammad. Ibn Umm Maktum eventually converted to Islam and became a very close companion of Muhammad. When Muhammad exhorted the superiority of those who participates in Jihad or Holy war this blind man was reluctant to participate in such fighting and wanted an exemption. During the writing of this verse (4:95) Muhammad forgot about the blind man. So Ibn Umm Maktum reminded him of his case. Accordingly, Muhammad quickly changed his verse.

 

Here are two ahadith from Sahih Bukhari on how Ibn Umm Maktum changed Allah’s mind!

 

Muhammad called for Zayd to write his revelations (4:95)…6.60.117

 

Volume 6, Book 60, Number 117:

Narrated Al-Bara:

When the Verse:– “Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home)” (4.95) was revealed, Allah Apostle called for Zaid who wrote it. In the meantime Ibn Um Maktum came and complained of his blindness, so Allah revealed: “Except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame…” etc.) (4.95)

Here is another version of the said Hadis:

 

Muhammad quickly changed a verse to accommodate the request of a blind man joining a Jihad (4:95)…6.61.512

 

Volume 6, Book 61, Number 512:

Narrated Al-Bara:

There was revealed: ‘Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and those who strive and fight in the Cause of Allah.’ (4.95)

The Prophet said, “Call Zaid for me and let him bring the board, the inkpot and the scapula bone (or the scapula bone and the ink pot).”‘ Then he said, “Write: ‘Not equal are those Believers who sit..”, and at that time ‘Amr bin Um Maktum, the blind man was sitting behind the Prophet . He said, “O Allah’s Apostle! What is your order For me (as regards the above Verse) as I am a blind man?” So, instead of the above Verse, the following Verse was revealed:

‘Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame etc.) and those who strive and fight in the cause of Allah.’ (4.95)

And here is a similar Hadis from Sahih Muslim:

Book 020, Number 4676:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Ishaq, that he heard Bara’ talking about the Qur’anic verse:” Those who sit (at home) from among the believers and those who go out for Jihad in the way of Allah are not aqual” (iv. 95). (He said that) the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) ordered Zaid (to write the verse). He brought a shoulder-blade (of a slaughtered camel) and inscribed it (the verse) thereon. The son of Umm Maktum complained of his blindness to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him). (At this) descended the revelation:” Those of the believers who sit (at home) without any trouble (illness, incapacity, disability)” (iv. 95). The tradition has been handed down through two other chains of transmitters.

 

. Conclusion

 

The Holy Qur’an is not authored by almighty Allah. Allah, if He ever existed, must be busy with many other important matters. He has no time to write an incoherent, ambiguous, repetitive, erroneous scripture to guide mankind. A few ambitious and opportunistic persons, in the name of Allah gathered together under the tutelage of Muhammad to construct the Qur’an by adapting, amending and outright plagiarizing other scriptures and heresy of the time. This they did to advance and perpetuate their political ambition to dominate the then Arabian peninsula, and later, many other peaceful countries. Qur’an is the handiwork of a few cunning persons—an attempt to fool the gullible world—a deliberate effort to impose Arab superiority. All Muslims must learn the Arabic language to be able to recite the Qur’an and to offer prayers, adopt Arabic name and conform to Islamic (read Bedouin Arab) culture. This is naked Arab imperialism in the guise of propagating the message of the ‘Holy Qur’an’. Any Islamic Paradise will confirm to what I have written just now. When the undeniable truth about the authorship of the Qur’an and its hidden scheme is clearly understood, this Arab imperialism by the stealth stands out to be the main agenda of the Qur’an.

 

Epilogue: A few readers have requested me to show sample verses from the Qur’an which have similarities with Zayd b Amr’s poetry (see Part 3/5). I have decided to compose an appendix on this matter. This appendix will be posted in about a week’s time. So, stay tuned—Abul Kasem, November 30, 2004

 

 

Bibliography

 “The Holy Qur’an,” the internet version of three English translations can be read at: http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/quran/]

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al-Bukhari, Muhammad b. Ismail, “Sahi Bukhari,” translated in English by Dr Muhammad Muhsin Khan: [http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/bukhari/ ]

Muslim, Abu al-Hussain b. al-Hajjaj al-Qushairi, “Sahi Muslim,” translated in English by Abdul Hamid Siddiqui: [http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/muslim/ ]

Hughes, Patrick Thomas, “A Dictionary of Islam;” first published in 1886; latest reprint by Kazi Publications Inc., Chicago, 1994.

“The Origins of the Koran,”edited by Ibn Warraq, Prometheus Books, Amherst, New York, 1998.

Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad b. Yasr, “Sirat Rasul Allah,”  translated in English by A. Guillaume; first by published by Oxford University Press, London in 1955; fifteenth reprint by Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan, 2001.

Ibn Sa’d, Abu Abd Allah Muhammad, “Kitab al-Tabaqat,” vol i, translated in English by S. Moinul Haq, Kitab Bhavan; 1784, Kalam Mahal, Daraya Ganj, New Delhi, India, 1972.

Ibn Sa’d, Abu Abd Allah Muhammad, “Kitab al-Tabaqat,” vol ii, translated in English by S. Moinul Haq, Kitab Bhavan; 1784, Kalam Mahal, Daraya Ganj, New Delhi, India, 1972.

Ibn al-Kalbi, Hisham, “The Book of Idols (Kitab Al-Asnam),” translated in English by Nabih Amin Faris, Princeton University Press, 1952. [http://www.answering-islam.org/Books/Al-Kalbi/index.htm ]

al-Misri, Ahmed ibn Naqib, “Raliance of the Traveller (‘Umdat al-Salik),” revised edition, translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller, Amana Publications, Bettsville, Maryland, 1999.

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